Tubeimoside I shows potent antitumor and antitumor-promoting effects, it is an efficient apoptosis-inducing agent for choriocarcinoma cells, which exerts its effects, at least partially, by the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and regulation of the p38/MAPK, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. It also shows potent anti-microtubule activity, it can inhibit binding of known tubulin ligands.
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Intrinsic apoptotic pathway and G2/M cell cycle arrest involved in tubeimoside I-induced EC109 cell death.[Pubmed: 23825908
Tubeimoside (TBM), a traditional folk medicine, has been used to treat esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for a long term. Tubeimoside I (TBMS1) is the main component of TBM, exhibiting great anticancer potential. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Tubeimoside I cytotoxic effect on EC109 cells.
Subcellular proteomic study in the nucleus from EC109 cells revealed that altered proteins were associated with mitochondrial function and cell proliferation. Further biochemical studies showed that Tubeimoside I-induced molecular events were related to mitochondria-induced intrinsic apoptosis and P21-cyclin B1/cdc2 complex-related G2/M cell cycle arrest.
Considering the conventional application of tubeimoside in esophageal cancer,Tubeimoside I therefore may have a great potential as a chemotherapeutic drug candidate for ESCC.
Int J Mol Med. 2011 Oct;28(4):579-87.
Cytotoxicity of tubeimoside I in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells by induction of cytochrome c release and apoptosis via the mitochondrial-related signaling pathway.[Pubmed: 21687933
Mitochondria play important roles in the intrinsic pathways that trigger apoptosis. Anticancer chemotherapies eliminate cancer cells mainly through the induction of apoptosis.
In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the cytotoxic effects of Tubeimoside I (TBMS1) on the human choriocarcinoma cell line (JEG-3). Choriocarcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the reproductive system.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
TBMS1, a triterpenoid saponin, isolated from the tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), showed potent antitumor effects. However, the potential roles of TBMS1 in the treatment of choriocarcinoma remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of TBMS1 on JEG-3 cells. TBMS1 displayed strong growth inhibitory effects on JEG-3 cell growth. In addition, TBMS1 treatment with TBMS1 led to marked cell apoptosis, significant cell cycle arrest at G2 phase and decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). Cytochrome c was released from the mitochondria and caspase-3 expression was enhanced. Furthermore, TBMS1 induced the up-regulation of Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) expression, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, inhibition of nuclear factor-κ-B (NF-κB) function and impacted the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt).
Taken together, our findings suggest that TBMS1 is an efficient apoptosis-inducing agent for choriocarcinoma cells, which exerts its effects, at least partially, by the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and regulation of the p38/MAPK, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
Mol Med Rep. 2011 Sep-Oct;4(5):985-92.
Tubeimoside I sensitizes cisplatin in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780/DDP) through down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of p38 signaling pathways.[Pubmed: 21687949
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a major chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of human ovarian cancer. Tubeimoside I (TBMS1) has also shown potent antitumor and antitumor-promoting effects, and may offer a promising new approach in the effective treatment of CDDP-resistant human ovarian cancers.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of TBMS1 in sensitizing CDDP in CDDP-resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780/DDP).
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A variety of methods were employed to measure cell apoptosis, p38, ERK1/2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-π expressions. It was found that TBMS1 combined with CDDP promoted cell apoptosis, decreased proliferation activity and increased cytosolic Ca2+ levels. Bcl-2 protein expression was down-regulated but Bax was up-regulated. Moreover, GST-π mRNA and protein expression were decreased. TBMS1 reduced the resistance of the cells to CDDP-induced cytotoxicity. Both the p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and the ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively blocked this effect.
These results suggest that TBMS1 can effectively sensitize CDDP in CDDP-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through the down-regulation of the ERK1/2 and the up-regulation of the p38 signaling pathways.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;62(4):559-68.
Anti-microtubule activity of tubeimoside I and its colchicine binding site of tubulin.[Pubmed: 18030471
Tubeimoside I (TBMS1) was isolated from the tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet. TBMS1 shows potent anti-tumor activity. The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-microtubule role of TBMS1 and its binding site of tubulin.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Cell growth inhibition was measured by MTT after treatment with TBMS1. Uptake kinetics of TBMS1 by human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cell line (CNE-2Z) was assayed by HPLC. Microtubule protein (MTP) was prepared from porcine brain through two cycles of polymerization-depolymerization in a high molarity buffer. Inhibition of MTP polymerization induced by TBMS1 was determined by a turbidity measurement and a sedimentation assay; the interactions of TBMS1 with tubulin within CNE-2Z cells were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. TBMS1 was tested for its ability to inhibit binding of known tubulin ligands through competitive binding assay.
TBMS1 displayed growth inhibitory activity against CNE-2Z cells with IC(50) value of 16.7 microM for 72 h. HPLC analysis of TBMS1 uptake by CNE-2Z cells displayed the initial slow TBMS1 uptake and then gradually reaching an maximum uptake near 18 h. CNE-2Z cells treated with TBMS1 (25 microM, 3 h) were sufficient to cause the microtubular network disruption. Immunoblot analysis showed that the proportion of cytosolic tubulin of cells treated with TBMS1 increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. TBMS1 did not inhibit the binding of vinblastine to tubulin. Colchicine binding to tubulin was inhibited in the presence of TBMS1.
TBMS1 is an anti-microtubule agent, and its binding site of tubulin is the colchicine binding site of tubulin.