Polygalacin D shows anti- proliferation, anti-inflammary, and hepatoprotective activities, it can inhibit the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA without an appreciable cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 macrophages, and can suppress induction by LPS of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
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Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C)
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase II by Platycodon grandiflorum saponins via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activation in RAW 264.7 cells.[Pubmed: 15748625
Saponins are glycosidic compounds present in many edible and inedible plants. They exhibit potent biological activities in mammalian systems, including several beneficial effects such as anti-inflammation and immunomodulation.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this study, we investigated the effects of seven platycodin saponins on the activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that 2"-O-acetyl Polygalacin D (S1), platycodin A (S2), platycodin D (S3), and Polygalacin D (S6) inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, these compounds inhibited the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA without an appreciable cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 macrophages, and could suppress induction by LPS of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Treatment with these compounds of RAW 264.7 cells transfected with a reporter construct indicated a reduced level of LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and effectively lowered NF-kappaB binding as measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The suppression of NF-kappaB activation appears to occur through the prevention of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) degradation. In vivo, platycodin saponin mixture (PS) and S3 protected mice from the lethal effects of LPS. The 89% lethality induced by LPS/galactosamine was reduced to 60% and 50% when PS and S3, respectively, were administered simultaneously with LPS.
These results suggest that the main inhibitory mechanism of the platycodin saponins may be the reduction of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression through blocking of NF-kappaB activation.
Molecules, 2012, 17(12):14899-907.
Two new oleanane-type triterpenoids from Platycodi Radix and anti-proliferative activity in HSC-T6 cells.[Pubmed: 23519261
Two new oleanane-type triterpenoids, named platycodonoids A and B (1, 2), together with five known saponins, including platycodin D (3), deapioplatycodin D (4), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl polygalacic acid (5), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl platycodigenin (6) and Polygalacin D (7), were isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
On the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 2β,3β,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-nor-olean-12-en-16-one (1) and 2β,3β,23,24- tetrahydroxy-28-nor-olean-12-en-16-one-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). Compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their in vitro anti-proliferative activity against the HSC-T6 cell line.