Gynosaponin TN-2 exerts protective effects on L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced apoptotic cell death by modulating extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation in pheochromocytoma 12 cells.
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Effects of gynosaponin TN-2 on L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells[Pubmed: 29120941
Gynosaponins have pharmacological effects on 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-related or dopamine-related neurological diseases; however, the neuroprotective functions of single compound of gynosaponins remain undefined. This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of gynosaponin TN-2 on L-DOPA in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. Gynosaponin TN-2, at 0.5-3 μM, did not exhibit cytotoxicity and protected against L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced cell death. Gynosaponin TN-2 (0.5 and 1.0 μM) inhibited the L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced sustained extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation. Gynosaponin TN-2 at 0.5 and 1.0 μM also reduced L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced JNK1/2 phosphorylation and cleaved caspase-3 expression. These results suggested that gynosaponin TN-2 exerts protective effects on L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced apoptotic cell death by modulating extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation in pheochromocytoma 12 cells.
Molecules, 2010 Apr 16;15(4):2814-24
Neuroprotective effects of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease[Pubmed: 20428081
6-Hydroxydopamine administration for 28 days (8 microg/2 microL) reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons to 40.2% in the substantia nigra compared to the intact contralateral side. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine levels were reduced to 19.1%, 52.3%, 47.1% and 67.4% in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats compared to the control group, respectively. However, an oral administration of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) starting on day 3 post-lesion for 28 days markedly ameliorated the reduction of TH-immunopositive neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain from 40.2% to 67.4% and 75.8% in the substantia nigra. GP-EX administration (10 and 30 mg/kg) also recovered the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine in post-lesion striatum to 64.1% and 65.0%, 77.9% and 89.7%, 82.6% and 90.2%, and 88.1% and 89.2% of the control group. GP-EX at the given doses did not produce any sign of toxicity such as weight loss, diarrhea and vomiting in rats during the 28 day treatment period and four gypenoside derivatives, gynosaponin TN-1, gynosaponin TN-2, gypenoside XLV and gypenoside LXXIV were identified from GP-EX. These results suggest that GP-EX might be helpful in the prevention of Parkinson's disease.