Cimicifugoside is a novel specific nucleoside transport inhibitor that displays synergistic potentiation of methotrexate cytotoxicity. Cimicifugoside shows immunosuppressive activity, which is preferentially directed toward B-cell function with larger doses being required for suppression of T-cell function. Cimicifugoside is also a phytoestrogen, it can selectively inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) -mediated response in bovine chromaffin cells.
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Inhibition of nucleoside transport and synergistic potentiation of methotrexate cytotoxicity by cimicifugoside, a triterpenoid from Cimicifuga simplex.[Pubmed: 19748575
Cimicifugoside, a triterpenoid isolated from Cimicifuga simplex, which has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic or anti-pyretic action, was examined for inhibition of nucleoside transport and synergistic potentiation of methotrexate cytotoxicity.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Cimicifugoside inhibited uptake of uridine, thymidine and adenosine in human leukemia U937 cells with the low nanomolar IC(50) values, but did not affect that of uracil, leucine or 2-deoxyglucose at Cimicifugoside analogs differentially inhibited uridine uptake in the order Cimicifugoside>cimicifugenin (aglycon of Cimicifugoside)>bugbanoside B>cimicifugenin A, O-methyl cimicifugenin and bugbanoside A. Cimicifugoside had less affinity for the binding site of nitrobenzylthioinosine (typical high-affinity inhibitor of equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1) in U937 cells, K562 cells and human erythrocyte membranes compared with the prototype nucleoside transport inhibitor dipyridamole. Cimicifugoside markedly potentiated methotrexate cytotoxicity in a culture of U937 cells and human carcinoma KB cells. Potentiation of methotrexate cytotoxicity by Cimicifugoside analogs in U937 cells was in proportion to their inhibitory activity against uridine uptake.
The present study demonstrates that Cimicifugoside is a novel specific nucleoside transport inhibitor that displays synergistic potentiation of methotrexate cytotoxicity.
Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1981 Jun;32(3):565-8.
Differential cytotoxicity of cytosine arabinoside toward murine leukemia L1210 cells and murine bone marrow progenitor cells inhibited in nucleoside transport by cimicifugoside.[Pubmed: 6791252
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Cytotoxicities of cytosine arabinoside (Ara C) and showdomycin to murine L1210 leukemia cells was prevented by a nucleoside transport inhibitor, Cimicifugoside. Ara C toxicity to bone marrow progenitor cells, however, was observed even in the presence of Cimicifugoside.
The difference of Ara C toxicity toward L1210 cells and bone marrow cells pretreated with Cimicifugoside may be originated in the different characteristics of membrane transport site of nucleosides.
J Pharmacobiodyn. 1980 Dec;3(12):643-8.
The immune response of splenic lymphocytes after cimicifugoside treatment in vitro and pretreatment in vivo.[Pubmed: 7277179
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Pretreatment of mouse splenocytes with Shigella lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A followed by 50 ng/ml of Cimicifugoside resulted in a 69% and 31% inhibition of blastogenesis compared to controls. The plaque forming colony assay using sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) showed a decreased number of plaque forming colonies after exposure of the splenic cells to 1 microgram/ml of Cimicifugoside. Cimicifugoside, 0.1 mg/mouse i.p. suppressed the anti-SRBC response in the plaque forming assay. The major inhibition of the antibody response occurred when Cimicifugoside was administered 1 day before the primary immunization with SRBC. The delayed type hypersensitivity to picryl chloride was suppressed after i.v. administration of Cimicifugoside, 1.0-2.0 mg/mouse.
The immunosuppressive activity of Cimicifugoside is preferentially directed toward B-cell function with larger doses being required for suppression of T-cell function.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 May;309(2):641-9.
Phytoestrogen cimicifugoside-mediated inhibition of catecholamine secretion by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.[Pubmed: 14757852
We investigated the effect of the phytoestrogen Cimicifugoside, one of the pharmacologically active ingredients of the medicinal plant Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) that has been used to treat many kinds of neuronal and menopausal symptoms, such as arthritis, menopausal depression, and nerve pain.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Cimicifugoside inhibited calcium increase induced by 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 18 +/- 2 microM. In contrast, Cimicifugoside did not affect the calcium increases evoked by high K(+), veratridine, and bradykinin. The DMPP-induced sodium increase was also inhibited by Cimicifugoside with an IC(50) of 2 +/- 0.3 microM, suggesting that the activity of nAChRs is inhibited by Cimicifugoside. Cimicifugoside did not affect the KCl-induced secretion but markedly inhibited the DMPP-induced catecholamine secretion that was monitored by carbon-fiber amperometry in real time and high-performance liquid chromatography through electrochemical detection.
The results suggest that Cimicifugoside selectively inhibits nAChR-mediated response in bovine chromaffin cells.