2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyldiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside(TSG) has potential to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases, it not only prevents over-expression of α-synuclein at an early stage, but also reverses the increased expression of α-synuclein and inhibits the aggregation at the late stage of Tg mice. TSG suppresses PDGF-BB-induced PASMCs proliferation is associated with an inhibition of AKT / GSK3β signaling pathways. TGS, emodin and physcion also have the lipid regulation activity to an overall synergy.
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Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C)
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1291-9.
Hepatoxicity of major constituents and extractions of Radix Polygoni Multiflori and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata.[Pubmed: 21840387
Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) were traditionally widely used as Chinese herbal medicine. However, liver adverse reactions caused by RPM or RPMP were frequently reported all around the world recent years. The aim of this study was to study the cytotoxicities of RPM, RPMP and their major constituents on human liver cell L-02 simultaneously.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Multi-assays, including MTT assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, LDH leakage percentage and liver enzyme secretion (AST, ALT and ALP) were used. Cytotoxicities of major chemical constituents of RPM, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside，TSG), physcion and emodin, were tested. The cytotoxicities of water, 50% ethanol and 95% ethanol extractions of RPM and RPMP were tested. HPLC-DAD analysis was carried to reveal the content change of TSG, physcion and emodin after the processing procedure.
The TD(50) of TSG, physcion and emodin in MTT assay were >10,000 μM, 2853.61 μM and 520.37 μM. In the NRU assay, the TD(50) of TSG, physcion and emodin were much smaller (1401.53 μM, 1140.00 μM, and 3.80 μM). Emodin induced much severe liver enzyme secretion than TSG and physcion. Cell proliferation and LDH leakage rate showed no difference between RPM and RPMP extractions, but ALP, AST and ALT secretions in RPMP extractions were significant lower than that of PMR groups. Water extractions of RPM and RPMP were less toxic than any other solvent in most of the assays. Positive correlation was found between the TSG/emodin ratio and MTT survival rate. The emodin/physcion ratio also showed positive correlation with the LDH leakage percentage.
In conclusion, Radix Polygonum multiflorum and Radix Polygonum multiflorum Praeparata were not liver injure inducing in our in vitro assays. However, the processing produce of RPM could reduce its effect on both cell proliferation and enzyme secretion of liver cell. Judging from cell proliferation, integrity of cell membrane and enzyme secretion, three major chemical constituents of RPM: TSG, physcion and emodin showed no, moderate and severe cytotoxicity against human liver cell line L-02 respectively. Chemical constituents-cytotoxicity relationship investigation revealed that TSG and physcion probably had attenuating effect to emodin. The attenuating mechanisms were still under investigation.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(1):41-52.
Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside antagonizes age-related α-synuclein overexpression in the hippocampus of APP transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.[Pubmed: 23160059
To investigate the mRNA and protein alterations of α-synuclein in the brain of Alzheimer's disease-like mouse model at the different ages, and to evaluate the effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside ( 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside,TSG) on α-synuclein expression.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
TSG (120 or 240 μmol kg(-1)d(-1)) was intragastrically administered to APPV717I transgenic (Tg) mice at 4- or 10-month-old for 6 months.
mRNA expression of α-synuclein increased in hippocampus in 4 month to 16 month old Tg mice compared with age-matched control. α-synuclein protein expression in hippocampus also increased in 4 month to 16 month old Tg mice significantly. Significant down-regulation of α-synuclein mRNA and protein expression in hippocampus was found after treatment of TSG for 6 months in both 10- and 16-month-old Tg mice. Production of dimer and tetramer of α-synuclein protein in Tg mice was inhibited after treatment with TSG.
The expression and aggregation of α-synuclein was age-dependently increased in Tg mice. TSG not only prevents over-expression of α-synuclein at an early stage, but also reverses the increased expression of α-synuclein and inhibits the aggregation at the late stage of Tg mice. TSG may have potential to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 May 14;153(3):763-70.
In vitro effects of active components of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix on enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism.[Pubmed: 24680992
Raw and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and PMRP) are used in the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia or related diseases. In our previous research, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside,TSG) displayed the most important role in the total cholesterol (TC) lowering effect among all the chemical constituents of Polygonum multiflorum. Emodin and physcion displayed more favorable triglyceride (TG) reducing effects than TSG. However, there are few researches focus on the approach and mechanism of how do Polygonum multiflorum exhibit good lipid regulation activity. The targeted sites of active substances of Polygonum multiflorum are still not clearly elucidated. This research pays close attention to how major chemical components of Polygonum multiflorum affect the TC and TG contents in liver cells.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this research, a sensitive, accurate and rapid in vitro model, steatosis hepatic L02 cell, was used to explore target sites of active chemical substances of Polygonum multiflorum for 48h. Steatosis hepatic L02 cell was exposed to emodin, physcion and TSG, respectively. The contents of four key enzymes in the pathway of synthesis and decomposition of TC and TG were investigated after exposure. Meanwhile, the contents of lipid transfer protein were also tested. The diacylgycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) controlled the biosynthesis of TG from free fatty acids while 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) limited the biosynthesis of TC. Hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A) played the key role in the lipolysis procedure of TG and TC.
The synthesis of TC and TG in steatosis L02 cells were apparently increased in the model group compared to the control group. Intracellular contents of HMG-CoA reductase and DGAT1 increased 32.33% and 56.52%, while contents of CYP7A and HTGL decreased 21.61% and 47.37%. Emodin, physcion and TSG all showed down-regulation effects on HMG-CoA reductase, while up-regulation effects on CYP7A. The most remarkable effect on HMG-CoA reductase was found on emodin. Emodin could reduce the DGAT1 content from 438.44 ± 4.51 pg/mL in model group to 192.55 ± 9.85 pg/mL (100 μm). The content of HTGL in 300 μm physcion group was 3.15 ± 0.15 U/mL, which was more significantly effective than the control, lovastatin and fenofibrate group.
TSG could raise the content of CYP7A and then promote the lipolysis of cholesterol. Moreover, TSG also showed the best LDL-reducing effect. Emodin could inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and DGAT1, which were key enzymes in the synthesis of TC and TG. Physcion increased the content of HTGL, and then could boost the lipolysis of triglyceride. At the same time, physcion showed the best VLDL-reducing effect. In view of the above conclusions, we contributed the lipid regulation activity to an overall synergy of TSG, emodin and physcion.
Gene. 2014 Aug 15;547(1):126-35.
Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression analysis of Fallopia multiflora to discover putative genes involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside.[Pubmed: 24967942
The compound 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-ß-d-glucoside (2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside,THSG) synthesized by Fallopia multiflora (F. multiflora) exhibits pharmacological potency. However, the mechanistic details of its biosynthesis pathway are still vague.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
To clear this ambiguity, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of F. multiflora using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-seq generated approximately 70 million high-quality reads that were assembled into 65,653 unigenes (mean length=750 bp), including 26,670 clusters and 38,983 singletons. A total of 48,173 (73.4%) unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off e-value above 10(-5). Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome difference of four different F. multiflora tissues using DGE profiling. Variations in gene expression were identified based on comparisons of transcriptomes from various parts of a high-level THSG- and a low-level THSG-producing F. multiflora plant. Clusters with similar differential expression patterns and enriched metabolic pathways with regard to the differentially expressed genes putatively involved in THSG biosynthesis were revealed for the first time.
Our data provides the most comprehensive sequence resource regarding F. multiflora so far. Taken together, the results of this study considerably extend the knowledge on THSG production.