Xanthohumol has anti-hepatitis C virus, anti-carcinogenic, free radical-scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities, it can inhibit HIV-1 induced cytopathic effects, the production of viral p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentration. Xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals. Xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome, it lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.
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Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C)
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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Antiviral Res. 2004 Dec;64(3):189-94.
Xanthohumol, a novel anti-HIV-1 agent purified from Hops Humulus lupulus.[Pubmed: 15550272
Xanthohumol, prenylchacone flavonoid, is a natural product with multi-biofunctions purified from Hops Humulus lupulus. Its anti-HIV-1 activity was tested in the present study.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Results showed that Xanthohumol inhibited HIV-1 induced cytopathic effects, the production of viral p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentration. The EC50 values were 0.82, 1.28 and 0.50 microg/ml, respectively. The therapeutic index (TI) was about 10.8. Xanthohumol also inhibited HIV-1 replication in PBMC with EC50 value of 20.74 microg/ml. The activity of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the HIV-1 entry were not inhibited by Xanthohumol.
The results from this study suggested that Xanthohumol is effective against HIV-1 and might serve as an interesting lead compound. It may represent a novel chemotherapeutic agent for HIV-1 infection. However, the mechanism of its anti-HIV-1 effect needs to be further clarified.
Behav Brain Res. 2014 Dec 15;275:1-10.
Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.[Pubmed: 25192637
The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of Xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with Xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young Xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and Xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving Xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study.
This evidence suggests that Xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals.
J Oleo Sci. 2014;63(2):159-68.
Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.[Pubmed: 24420065
Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary Xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Dietary Xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary Xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary Xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary Xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary Xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, Xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption.
Therefore, Xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition.
Front Physiol. 2015 May 6;6:140.
The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels.[Pubmed: 25999863
Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial Xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
This review summarizes present studies indicating that Xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial Xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of Xanthohumol or a Xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, Xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis.
Thus, therapeutic Xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:921306.
Xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in ca ski human cervical cancer cells.[Pubmed: 25949267
We investigate induction of apoptosis by Xanthohumol on Ca Ski cervical cancer cell line. Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The present study showed that Xanthohumol was effective to inhibit proliferation of Ca Ski cells based on IC50 values using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Furthermore, cellular and nuclear morphological changes were observed in the cells using phase contrast microscopy and Hoechst/PI fluorescent staining. In addition, 48-hour long treatment with Xanthohumol triggered externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells. Additionally, Xanthohumol mediated S phase arrest in cell cycle analysis and increased activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. On the other hand, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of cleaved PARP, p53, and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 and XIAP decreased in a dose-dependent manner.
Taken together, these findings indicate that Xanthohumol-induced cell death might involve intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as downregulation of XIAP, upregulation of p53 proteins, and S phase cell cycle arrest in Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. This work suggests that Xanthohumol is a potent chemotherapeutic candidate for cervical cancer.
Planta Med. 2014 Feb;80(2-3):171-6.
Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication in vitro by xanthohumol, a natural product present in hops.[Pubmed: 24356905
Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops, has various biological activities including an antiviral effect. It was previously characterized as a compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus, a surrogate model of hepatitis C virus.
In the present work, Xanthohumol was examined for its ability to inhibit hepatitis C virus replication in a cell culture system carrying replicating hepatitis C virus RNA replicon.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
0.2 % DMSO and 500 units/mL interferon-alpha treatments were set as a negative and positive control, respectively. The inhibitory effect by Xanthohumol was determined by the luciferase activity of the infected Huh7.5 cell lysates and the hepatitis C virus RNA levels in the culture. Xanthohumol at 3.53 μM significantly decreased the luciferase activity compared to the negative control (p < 0.01). Xanthohumol at 7.05 μM further decreased the luciferase activity compared to Xanthohumol at 3.53 μM (p = 0.015). Xanthohumol at 7.05 μM or 14.11 μM achieved an inhibitory effect similar to that of interferon-alpha 2b (p > 0.05). Xanthohumol at 3.53 μM significantly reduced the hepatitis C virus RNA level compared to the negative control (p = 0.001). Although the results of Xanthohumol at 7.05 μM had a higher variation, Xanthohumol at the 7.05 μM and 14.11 μM decreased the hepatitis C virus RNA level to that achieved by interferon-alpha (p > 0.05).
In conclusion, Xanthohumol displays anti-hepatitis C virus activity in a cell culture system and may be potentially used as an alternative or complementary treatment against the hepatitis C virus.