Apigenin-7-glucuronide possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-complement, anti-inflammatory, and aldose reductase inhibitory activities, it can inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP) activities, with IC50s of 12.87, 22.39, 17.52, 0.27 μM for MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, respectively. Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide protects mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production, it may be used as a dietary complement for health promotion.
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Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C)
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide inhibits LPS-induced inflammation through the inactivation of AP-1 and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice against endotoxin shock.[Pubmed: 26750400
Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (Apigenin-7-glucuronide,AG), an active flavonoid derivative isolated from the agricultural residue of Juglans sigillata fruit husks, possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-complement, and aldose reductase inhibitory activities.
To date, no report has identified the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of AG.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
This study was therefore designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms of AG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and on endotoxin-induced shock in mice. AG suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. Additionally, AG suppressed LPS-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α. AG treatment decreased the translocation of c-Jun into the nucleus, and decreased activator protein-1 (AP-1)-mediated luciferase activity through the inhibition of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Consistent with the in vitro observations, AG protected mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production.
Taken together, these results suggest that AG may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion.
Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Jan;31(1):28-33.
Comparative antioxidant activity and HPLC profiles of some selected Korean thistles.[Pubmed: 18277604
As yet, no comparative analyses have been conducted regarding the comparative antioxidant activities and HPLC profiles of thistles distributed in Korea.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Thus, this study was performed in order to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of seven Korean thistles: Cirsium lineare, Cirsium chanroenicum, Cirsium setidens, Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, Cirsium nipponicum, Cirslum pendulum and Carduus crispus, via peroxynitrite and DPPH free radical assays. Among seven Korean thistles, Carduus crispus exhibited the most significant antioxidant activity in both DPPH assay and peroxynitrite. In order to characterize the compounds contained in Korean thistles, we conducted HPLC analyses on the following ten flavonoids: luteolin-5-glucoside (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), apigenin-7-glucoside (3), hispidulin-7-neohesperidoside (4), Apigenin-7-glucuronide (5), cirsimarin (6), pectolinarin (7), luteolin (8), apigenin (9) and acacetin (10).
The results of our HPLC analyses indicated the presence of pectolinarin in the whole plants of C. setidens, C. lineare, C. nipponicum, C. pendulum, the aerial and underground parts of C. japonicum var. ussuriense, and the aerial parts of C. chanroenicum. Moreover, we were able to identify hispidulin-7-neohesperidoside and luteolin-7-glucoside in the whole plants of Carduus crispus, acacetin in the aerial parts of C. chanroenicum, cirsimarin in C. lineare.